ELECTRONIC AND SAFETY STANDARDS



EMI EMC COMPLIANCE (ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY),
PCB STANDARDS, MIL STD, LINKS TO DOWNLOADS




Let me start by saying that the term "electronic standard" is often misinterpreted. In many cases, standards in electronic industry, such as IPC are voluntary. Generally, it is documented agreements established by a consensus of industry experts, which in some cases may also be approved by certain recognized bodies. A standard usually provides rules, guidelines or characteristics to ensure that certain materials, products, and processes are fit for their purpose and reasonably safe. However, voluntary consensus documents developed by an industry are often subsequently adopted by the governments as part of the regulatory framework.








The state laws often establish some mandatory electrical characteristics such as those related to safety, energy efficiency and power consumption. The safety legislations are intended to minimize the likelihood of personal injury, fire, and various dangerous conditions. So, what are the main standards applicable to common electronics and particularly to power supplies?

For commercial Information Technology Equipment (ITE) currently the main generic safety document is IEC60950. There is a number of commonly recognized testing laboratories that can certify compliance to IEC60950 or to similar national requirements (such as UL60950 in U.S. and CSA22.2 No.60950 in Canada). Note that UL60950-1 may soon be replaced by a new UL/CSA 62368-1 document based on IEC 62368-1.
Medical equipment used within the patient vicinity is covered by a more stringent IEC60601-1 series.

The EMI conducted and radiated out of ITE along its cables are regulated by EN 55022 (which is similar to legacy CISPR 22). Various countries may also have their own national standards. For example, in the U.S. the emissions from commercial electronics are additionally defined by Subparts A and B of FCC 47 CFR Part 15. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and immunity of most ITE devices is covered by a generic IEC/EN 61000 series. Current harmonics from equipment that draws current less than 16A per phase are set by IEC/EN 61000-3-2. US, EU and many other countries also regulate power factor for various classes of equipment, particularly for computers and power adapters.

Here you will find selected useful links to reviews and downloads of various electronic industry's standards.

STANDARDS AND
SAFETY AGENCIES
AND TESTING LABS


INFORMATION, REVIEWS AND UPDATES ON THE STANDARDS


ELECTRICAL STANDARDS DOWNLOADS


TUV America

UL Underwriters Laboratories

CSA International

ETSI - Telecom Standards

IEC International Electrotechnical Commission

ANSI American National Standards Institute

IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

ISO - International Organization for Standardization

Index of Engineering standard organizations


PCB PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD GUIDE - DESIGN TUTORIAL

EMI-EMC Mil Std 461 specification chart

Interface bus standards (USB, I2C, cPCI, VME, EIA-232, EIA-422 /485, etc)

AC line voltages and plugs around the world

Understanding electromagnetic compatibility in SMPS switchmode power supplies- what is EMI

Current harmonic content specification EN61000-3-2 overview

Power supply safety quiz



The Code of US Federal Regulations

US military specifications and MIL-STD standards download

Generic Standard on PCB Design IPC-2221 (table of contents)

Qualification and Performance Specification for Rigid Printed Boards IPC-6012B (table of contents)

UL Electrical Insulation systems database

USB 3.0 Specification