The purpose of electronic circuits is to control the flow of electric currents. This may sound like a silly question, but why do we need to control the currents? Well, it has been found experimentally that the intensity of various electrical effects is related to the amount of the charge

In practice, the flow of the current can be controlled by various electronic components. A network of interconnected components that can accomplish a certain task is referred to as

Let's see how the moving charge relates to electric power. When a charged particle is placed in an electrical field, it experiences a force that depends on its position. Such particle therefore has a potential energy associated with this position. When it moves from one point to another, the amount of work done by the field equals the drop in partical's energy, which is being converted into other energy forms, such as mechanical motion, heat and light. The change in the potential energy of a particle per unit charge as it moves from one point to another is defined as

Impedance by definition is the ratio of the voltage to the current. Components in a circuit can be connected in series or in parallel (see diagram to the right). With

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With this method, voltages and currents are represented by complex functions (Impedance in general can be presented as a complex number that can be calculated by using formulas for series and parallel connections. With known Z, current phasor is

V - rms voltage (volts);

I - rms current (amps);

Z - magnitude of impedance (ohms);

S - apparent power (volt-amps).

By knowing any two values of V, I, Z or S, you can find the values of the remaining quantities.

For a pure resistor

To use this

Every circuit design starts with the development of a schematic. A

The basis for circuit analysis technique are Kirchoff's current and voltage laws in conjunction with Ohm's law extended for AC. There are also a number of network theorems and methods (such as Thevenin, Norton, Superposition, Y-Delta transform) that are derived from these three laws.

The circuit design typically includes computer simulation, breadboarding and prototyping.

Electronic devices are normally assembled on printed circuit boards (PCBs) that mechanically support and electrically interconnect parts by using conductive traces, etched from copper sheets laminated onto an isolating substrate. The size of the traces is calculated based on their current-carrying capacity and acceptable impedance.

## REFERENCE |
## BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT |